International Harvester was formed in 1902 by the merger of McCormick and Deering, and the fledgling company initially sold just 2 tractors. The Type A was launched in 1906 in 12, 15 & 20hp sizes, followed by the Type B which was made until 1916. Powered by paraffin, the 45hp Mogul 8-16 (marketed by McCormick in the USA) was launched in 1916 and the 22hp Titan 10-20 (marketed by Deering) in 1918. Both were sold in Britain quite successfully. More than 78,000 Titans were made until the Junior 10-20 followed in the 1920s, with the later 10-20 model being produced at least until 1939.
The Farmall name was introduced in 1924 with the Regular model. The range was updated in 1932, with the addition of F12, F20 and F30 models all being row-crop tractors with adjustable wheel-track, based on the Regular. Initially in the traditional grey, the livery was changed in 1936 to a bright red, which was to be the norm for the next four decades. The reason for this change was two-fold, firstly to make them more attractive to potential buyers, and secondly, to make them more visible on the roads with ever-increasing traffic levels. These tractors were still on steel wheels and the F14 replaced the F12 in the mid 30s. Tractors were also marketed under McCormick-Deering and International brands, the W-series being launched in the late 1930s. Their first crawler tractor was unveiled in 1928 and was known as the TracTracTor, being renamed as the T20 in 1931.
The Farmall range was modernised and expanded during the 1940s and 1950s and included models such as the Cub, A, C, BM, M, etc. They were updated in the early 1950s, being designated Super models. In the post-wars years, IH followed other manufacturers such as Allis Chalmers and Fordson in opening factories in Britain, with a plant at Doncaster. The Farmall Cub was also made in France with a rounded bonnet compared to the more angular American version. Electrics and PTOs were often optional extras in this period with many models still being equipped with belt-pulleys for driving machinery.
Models continued to be developed during the 60s and 70s with a distinctive International identity, with the red-and-white 414 and 584 models typical of British models. Some of the smaller horticultural models such as the Cub and Cub Cadet changed livery again in the 1960s to a smart yellow and white scheme, but as the company entered the 1980s, the economic crisis that loomed was to have far-reaching consequences. In 1982, losses amounted to $1.6 billion and in 1984 the company who controlled Case tractors took over to form Case IH.